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Development of the internet

The recent growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web makes it appear that the world is witnessing the arrival of a completely new technology. In fact, the Web—now considered to be a major driver of the way society accesses and views information—is the result of numerous projects in computer networking, mostly funded by the federal government, carried out over the last 40 years. The projects produced communications protocols that define the format of network messages, prototype networks, and application programs such as browsers. This research capitalized on the ubiquity of the nation's telephone network, which provided the underlying physical infrastructure upon which the Internet was built.

This chapter traces the development of the Internet, one aspect of the broader field of data networking. The chapter is not intended to be comprehensive; rather, it focuses on the federal role in both funding research and supporting the deployment of networking infrastructure. This history is divided into four distinct periods. Before 1970, individual researchers developed the underlying technologies, including queuing theory, packet switching, and routing. During the 1970s, experimental networks, notably the ARPANET, were constructed. These networks were primarily research tools, not service providers. Most were federally funded, because, with a few exceptions, industry had not yet realized the potential of the technology. During the 1980s, networks were widely deployed, initially to support scientific research. As their potential to improve personal communications and collaboration became apparent, additional academic disciplines and industry began to use the technology. In this era, the National Science Foundation (NSF) was the major supporter of networking, primarily through the NSFNET, which evolved into the Internet. Most recently, in the early 1990s, the invention of the Web made it much easier for users to publish and access information, thereby setting off the rapid growth of the Internet. The final section of the chapter summarizes the lessons to be learned from history.

By focusing on the Internet, this chapter does not address the full scope of computer networking activities that were under way between 1960 and 1995. It specifically ignores other networking activities of a more proprietary nature. In the mid-1980s, for example, hundreds of thousands of workers at IBM were using electronic networks (such as the VNET) for worldwide e-mail and file transfers; banks were performing electronic funds transfer; Compuserve had a worldwide network; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) had value-added networking services; and a VNET-based academic network known as BITNET had been established. These were proprietary systems that, for the most part, owed little to academic research, and indeed were to a large extent invisible to the academic computer networking community. By the late 1980s, IBM's proprietary SNA data networking business unit already had several billions of dollars of annual revenue for networking hardware, software, and services. The success of such networks in many ways limited the interest of companies like IBM and Compuserve in the Internet. The success of the Internet can therefore, in many ways, be seen as the success of an open system and open architecture in the face of proprietary competition.

Early Steps: 1960-1970

Approximately 15 years after the first computers became operational, researchers began to realize that an interconnected network of computers could provide services that transcended the capabilities of a single system. At this time, computers were becoming increasingly powerful, and a number of scientists were beginning to consider applications that went far beyond simple numerical calculation. Perhaps the most compelling early description of these opportunities was presented by J.C.R. Licklider (1960), who argued that, within a few years, computers would become sufficiently powerful to cooperate with humans in solving scientific and technical problems. Licklider, a psychologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), would begin realizing his vision when he became director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1962. Licklider remained at ARPA until 1964 (and returned for a second tour in 1974-1975), and he convinced his successors, Ivan Sutherland and Robert Taylor, of the importance of attacking difficult, long-term problems.








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Uses of the Internet


At the moment the easiest thing that can be done using the internet is that we can communicate with the people living far away from us with extreme ease. Earlier the communication used to be a daunting task but all that chanced once internet came into the life of the common people. Now people can not only chat but can also do the video conferencing. It has become extremely easy to contact the loved ones who are in some other part of the world. Communication is the most important gift that the internet has given to the common man. Email, social networking sites are some of the prime example of it. This is one such gift of the internet which is cherished by everyone and has made our life easier to much extent.

2. Research

Now the point that has been placed next is research. In order to do research you need to go through hundreds of books as well as the references and that was one of the most difficult jobs to do earlier. Since the internet came into life, everything is available just a click away. You just have to search for the concerned topic and you will get hundreds of references that may be beneficial for your research. And since internet is here to make your research public, you can then benefit a large amount of people from the research work that you have done. Research is one such thing which has got lots of benefit from this evolution of internet. Research process has now got wings and has gained the most due to the internet.

3. Education

The next point that we have in this list is education. Yes you read it right. Education is one of the best things that the internet can provide. There are a number of books, reference books, online help centres, expert’s views and other study oriented material on the internet that can make the learning process very easier as well as a fun learning experience. There are lots and lots of websites which are related to different topic. You can visit them and can gain endless amount of knowledge that you wish to have. With the use of internet for education, you are non-longer dependent on some other person to come and teach you. There are various number of tutorials available over the internet using which you can learn so many thing very easily. There can’t be any excellent use of the internet other than education as it is the key to achieve everything in life.



4. Financial Transaction

The next use mentioned here is financial transaction. Financial transaction is the term which is used when there is exchange of money. With the use of internet in the financial transaction, your work has become a lot easier. Now you don’t need to stand in the queue at the branch of your particular bank rather you can just log in on to the bank website with the credential that has been provided to you by the bank and then can do any transaction related to finance at your will. With the ability to do the financial transaction easily over the internet you can purchase or sell items so easily. Financial transaction can be considered as one of the best uses of resource in the right direction.

5. Real Time Updates

Real time updates have been placed at the number fifth position here. This has been mentioned here in regards to the news and other happenings that may be on-going in different parts of the world but with the use of internet we come to know about it very easily and without any difficulty. There are various websites on the internet which provides you with the real time updates in every field be it in business, sports, finance, politics, entertainment and others. Many a time the decisions are taken on the real time updates that are happening in various parts of the world and this is where internet is very essential and helpful.



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