HISTORY-JuniorCert

WELCOME to HISTORY-JuniorCert

Welcome to History-Junior Cert

Need help studying history? well then you've come to the right place. here you will find people in historys ideal for the junior cert. with highlited facst to make studying more maageble and efficent. this website will corver most people in hitosrys asked in the junior cert. 

Heres an exsample;

Plantations- native Ireland who lost land.

Hello my name is Dave and I am a native Irish who lost land in the ulster planation. I own land under the earl O’Neil. He along with the earl of Tyrone began a nine year was against the English crown. They had support from the Spanish but unfortunately were defeated by the crown in the battle of kinsale in 1601. The start of my troubles was when due to pressure from other earls O’Neil left in1607 in the flight of the earls and was declared a traitor and my land was confiscated. It was then surveyed and divided into church land and crown land.

               I along with a lot of other true Irishmen resent these English. I joined the wood kerns and hid in nearby forest and attack the settler’s home. We have discorded a pattern in their defence system. If its 1000 acers, there is only 1 bawn. If its 1500 acers there’s a dawn and a stone house and in 2000 acers there’s a bawn and a defence tower. This makes it harder for us to attack.

                The king of England, king James 1 said that they wanted to create a ‘loyal protestant population’ in Ireland by getting rid of all us Catholics. That they wanted to get more money for the crown and pay soldiers and officials who fought in the 9yr war and organised the plantations.

                  Or intelligence has told us that there are three different groups who have land. Undertakers, who are normally Scottish or English Protestants. Servitors, solders and officials of the crown. And the ‘loyal Irish

                         It is now the year 1641 and there is said to be over 40000 protestents in Ireland, but we keep them separate from us Irish. We also recently had a large scale attack and massacred at least a 1000 of them. There also building new fancy towns, with diamond middle and streets leading off, surrounded with a stone wall so it’s impossible to attack. There introducing new faring methods of more crop productions and less cows.

Archaeologist

Hello, my name is Narumi; I’m an archaeologist working on an excavation site in Japan. The site was found by an Arial photo graph of the land, it was not visible by ground level. We’re lucky the artefacts weren’t destroyed like many other invaluable items. The items found where from a primary source , as they came correctly from the time . there was no written sources in this dig since it comes from pre-history, before any written evidence

          When I arrived on the site the other archaeologist had already set up. An artist had already made a detailed drawing of the site, and divIDed the picture and the site into grids, so one would know where a certain object was dug out. I started digging late afternoon , being very careful and using delicate tool such as trawls , brushed and sivees to dig up any artefacts found. i was lucky enough to have Found  a polished stone tool from the pre-historic Japanese Paleolithic period . The section of the grid where the item was found was then marked on the map; cross-sections were also drawn to mark the depth of the item. The item was also photographed.

                             The stone tool needed to be dated, me and fellow archaeologists went to Tokeyo’s national history museum ,. Here they not only have amazing items on display but also a lab where we can date the items . The stone tools age was measured in statagrophy , which means layers in the soil. The object was very low down in the surface, so that means it was very old. We also used carbon 14 dating to date other objects found on the dig. Carbon 14 dating is when and organic material age is measured by counting the numbers of neutrons in its carbon atom. Although we didn’t use dendrocronangy in this dig, its used to date timber by counting the tree ring and comparing their patterns to a known age. Post-hole of old houses also allowed us to find out the shape of the dwelling. We weren’t fortunate enough to find any old leather or scraps of clothing , so were not sure what they wear.

                    There is many other scientific methods used , such as Pollen analysis tells us what plants grew in what area. This could investigate the background in agricultural in the land. Bones tell us what animals were kept by the inhabitancies , there age and dieses. Another fasicating scientific advancement in the felid of archaeology is by analysing the mineral content of pots and other objects you can get an idea of where the raw material came from and in turn the trade routes used ect. Finally forensic science has been very helpful in reconstructing the appearance of ancient people from their remains.

                         The stone tool i found was later put on display in the Tokyo history museum. Here you can also , if permitted, look through achieves where information is stored about all types of interesting excavations and history.

Neolithic period

Hello , my name is Konan, and I’m a man living during the Neolithic period of Ireland. My ancestors came here in 4000BC . they were the first famers in Ireland getting rid of the nomadic tradition . me and my family are farmers .

                            Our house is rectangular made from a timber frame , planks and filled in with wattle and daub, with a tached roof. There’s a small hole at the top which is like a sort of chimney where a small hearth lies under.

                         Farming is very hard work, i grow wheat and bailey, the grain is later ground on a saddle stone. We also keep pigs until the winter, since that’s when the crops will be out of season. If needed we hunt for extra food. Other jobs consist of skinning animals, building houses, ploughing the felid, grounding grain on the saddle stone and lots more

                               All our weapons are made out of stone , our axes,knifes,scrapers, arrowheads , spears all of them. Are tools are also made of stone , we use axes for cutting trees for firewood and to cut planks for building. We use scrappers to gut animals , needles for sowing and we use hair for tread. We use a mattack for ploughing the land to make it ready for farming . and pottery for food and collecting berries. It was also used to contain the ashes of the dead.

                     We had a very unique burial customs. One of which is a passage grave, a friend of mine is working on the construction of one i Meath. Passage graves are a circler shaped mount with a large passage witch leads to a cross shaped burial chamber. Portal dolmens s what we used to bury my late father. Its three large stones two at the side and one balanced on top, called a cap stone . we cremated my fathers body and put it in a pot and placed it into the chamber. The final type of burial is a court carin . theres an open space at the front and a passage leading to the bural chamber , a large up-right stone formed the entrance . the passage was covered in carin (lots of small stones) we also cremate the body.

The Bronze Age

Hello, my name is Konan, I am a farmer during the Bronze Age in Ireland. This is the first use of metal. Bronze is made out of copper and tin , we use it instead of stone because it lasts longer , easy to shape, sharper and sturdier.

                    We live in a settlement beside a river and across from a wood for a source of food. Are houses are circular shaped and around 6 meters wide . there built with a wooden frame and filler in with wattle and daub. We live in the same settlement as my extended family. Around are building are a wooden fence and a ditch to keep out animals and other families.

      There’s lots of jobs to be done , such as spinning wool, weaving baskets, chopping wood , using a saddle-stone to grind grain, building houses ect , farming , and cooking. As well as cooking on a spit we also use a fulachta fiadha . this is a pit dug into the ground , we fill it with water and heat stones , we then placed it into the water to make the water boil. To cook meat we would wrap it in straw. We keep adding stones to keep the water warm.

              A friend of mine is a smith. He makes weapons and tool out of bronze. He uses clay moulds and makes jewellery also such as lunac , sun disc and a torc.

                When my father died we laid his body in a cist grave. A cist grave is a rectangular shape pit in the ground lined with stones. We buried him with an axe money and a pot as grave goods to bring with him to the after life. Some people cremate there dead and place them in wage tombs , its the most common burial custom. They use large flat stones . the entry was wide an high and got narrower as you entered . we use standing stones for religious ceremonies and rituals . they are tall stones placed in a circular fashion and the entrance faces north east.

                            I have to plough the land now so I must sign off, until next time.

Celts

Hello , my name is David and I am farmer in the iron age. Its called the iron age because we were the first to use metal . my ancestors came from Germany . iv herd that the Greeks call us keltoi and the romans call us gauls ... whatever that means

           I live in a ringfort with my family. Are house is built by digging a ditch and using earth and stone to form a circular bank. We used wattle and daub to construct the bank. Inside the ring we have one house built out of a timber frame and wattle a daub . we also have a thatched roof and a hearth at the centre. We have some smaller storage areas for my pigs and sheep. Our house has a souterrain, this is an underground passage , it leads to the faraway forest. We have one because my farm is an easy target for a raid, so we need a mean of escape . my wife also uses it for storing food because it was coo. A ringfort is the most common settlement you’ll see.

                            A friend of mine is working on the construction of a crannog for a file. A crannog is a fortified lake dwelling. Its an artificial island in the middle of a lake . they use stones, sods, earth and timber for th base of the island then place timber planks on top for the ground. They then make a fence about of timber and one or two houses out of timber and wattle and daub . well-off families can afford to live in a crannog. My friend is now making a bridge to the house.

                We also use a hill-fort for religious ceremonies .there like a large ringfort. Promatrary forts are built on headlands or cliff edges, they were also used for ceremonies, built was also a good means of defence , so we could see upcoming attacks.

                              My tuath is ruled by a ri , he was elected by the derphfine , and its his job to protect the tribe. Below the king are nobles , commoners’ like me , and slaves The warriors fight for the tribe , they also hunt and feast , they were the ones of whom I rent my land from.. Among the nobles are the aos dana , they had special skills. Such as a judge , he followed the brehon laws and gave judgment on crimes. The druids were the priests , they provide sacrifices, lead ceremonies, and worship the gods. The fili are the poets and can read and write, they can take down events and read out history and the traditions in their tribes poetry. Finally are the craftsmen , for example metalworks and carpenters. My job is to provide food for the tribe, i herd cattle. My fields are laid out around my ringfort. The lowest group in our society is the labours and slaves who were captured from raids on other tribes. We have 2 slaves on or farm.

                  My wife spends most of her time weaving cloth and brining up or 5 children. Only Nobel women can own property. The children of nobles are sometimes fostered by other families to learn a skills.

I kill my cattle in the autumn and salt them so we have food to eat in winter. My cows provide dairy products in the town. We also grow whet oats and baily. We grind the gain on a rotary quern and cook the bread in stone ovens.

                                 I hear stories of the grate feats the nobles have . they had on a week ago to celebrate the successful raid on another town. A brave warrior was entitled to the best part of the animal , this is called the ‘heroes portion’.

                             As i said before we now us iron tools and weapons , since iron ore is more available then copper . iron is also harder then bronze , though bronze is stilled used to make ornaments. We smelt to ore in a furnace and poor them into moulds to make axes,swords,arrowheads ect.

                         Are style of art is called la tene we use spirals , curved lines and floral .

                         We cremate our dead and place their remains into a simple pit or cist grave . we also burry them with grave goods to bring with them to the after life. We use a ogham stone to mark the graves or land borders. The first form of writing was on these ogham stones , we took the alphabet from the Romans.

Early Christian Monk.

Hello my name is David and I’m a monk living in skellig Michael. I live in the 16th century. We took the religious power from druids. We wanted a place to worship and honourer god , this is why we founded skellig Michael, its now a centre of culture and learning. We study the bible, copy manuscripts, we do metal work and stone carving to produce grate works of art and all visitors are welcome. However we live very simple lives, we follow strict rules and produce our own food. We are self-sufficient, so we only use recourses we make/  gather. We wear long tunics with woollen cloaks and shoes.

                                     We live in small stone beehive huts beside a small church. A bank and wall surround all our buildings. or main building is or oratory or church . we used to make our churches out of wood but then we later built it out off stone because its sturdier and less lightly to catch fire. Other building consists off ; the abbots house( the abbot is the main monk) the refectory , where we eat, the scriptorium , where I work as a scribe who copies manuscripts and a guesthouse for any visitors who want to visit or who we give asylum to.

                                 We also have a round tower. There stone buildings up to 40 m tall , wider at the base and became narrower. The door was high above the ground and was reached by a ladder.  We are currently repairing or round-tower after a Viking raid. Me and a few other monks were warned of the attack by the look-out , we then climbed the tower and pulled the ladder up so they couldn’t follow then went to the top level to the where we store important manuscript and goblets. We also use monasteries as belfries to mark when mass is to be served.

                         We have to pray eight times a day. A friend of mine works on the farm to produce food for the monks and as for me i spend my time in the scriptorium. I have great skill in writing and illuminating. i practiced my skill on wax tablets , then when ready, copied the writing onto vellum or parchment. It normally takes the skin of 150 calves to write a full book eg book of keels. We use reeds or quills as pens. as well as artwork we also produce fine silver chalices, crosiers and brooches decorated in gold. There’s still an influence in the floral and curvature of the Celtic art work.

                      We use stone crosses to mark burial places. are high stone crosses are often very well decorated , the illustrations can teach others about God.

Ancient Rome – Patrician.

Hello , my name is Elouise , i am a young person living in ancient Rome. My father is a politician. So we are very wealthy. We live in a private house called a domus . it looks plain from the outside , with white blank walls and a shop on the building. You enter to the atrium and the other rooms are the bedrooms , the kitchen, the bathroom and the perityluim. We have morals (frescoes) and mosaics on or walls and floors. On my way to the baths I walk past an insule , here i where the plebeians live, its stone at the bottom , where the better-off live then the wooden floors at the top is where the poor live. We also go to are villa in the country side for some of the year.

                                Or town is laid out in a grid pattern. The main buildings are the fourm , ampitheathre,baths and theatre.

                              My father is totally in charge of family life, while my mother spends her time running the house hold by organising slaves and spinning.  I am 14 years old and told I am to marry an 18 year old boy from another rich family. I am well prepared since I learnt how to by a wife/mother from my mother after  i finished primary school. when i marries my father will give a dole to my ‘to be husband’ and i will give away all my toys as a sign of my maturity. I have lots of siblings, since allot of them died young. My older brother is now in secondary school (grammatic) there he learns history, philosophy , public speaking and much more. He wants to become a politician like my father.

                   There is lots to do for entertainment such as gladiator fights in the amphitheather, here gladiators, slaves and convicts) fight to the death. My father also enjoys chariot racing in the cicus maximus. He is betting on the green team at the moment. My mother brought me to a play once in an open air-theatres. We sat in row of stone facing the stage.

                      The baths is also very popular , here who can wash, meet up with friend or discuss business. Women and men bathe separately. There is three rooms the tepidarium(warm), caldarium(hot) or the frigearium(cold).               

A named Renaissance artist from Italy. - Leonardo Da Vinci.

Leonardo was one of the greatest painters ever in the Renaissance. His father was a rich lawyer.  He was born in Vinci, he apprenticed by a master painter in Florence to learn his trade. His master’s name was Master Verrocchio. Here, Leonardo helped in painting the angel as part of his commission for Verrocchio, the piece was called ‘ the baptism of Christ’.

                 When Leonardo was trained he found it hard to get work in Florence. He wrote to the emperor of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, and he invited Leonardo to come to Milan. He painted many pictures and introduced a new painting technique called sfumato- a Smokey technique which blurs figures into the background. He also painted a famous fresco called the ‘Last supper’. He experimented with a new type of paint (oil tempera), which did not work well, so now the painting is in bad condition. Leonardo got his idea of faces by walking around Milan and looking at the faces of the public, he got Judas’s face by looking in the bad neighbourhood in Milan.

                              Leonardo also loved to study anatomy; he dissected more than 30 people of all ages. He made detailed drawings of the human body in his notebooks. He also liked to invent things, like tanks aeroplanes  ect . He wrote left-handed and backwards so no one could copy his work.

              Since he had these hobby’s he didn’t paint many pictures. One off his famous paintings is the ‘Mona Lisa’. The Mona Lisa is a portrait of a rich merchant’s wife. He used sfumato to make her hands and face look more realistic.

                   He later became a patron of the king off France and died in France 1519. Lean ado was admired and often referred to as a ‘renascance man’ thanks to all his hobbies and since he was an all-rounded genius.

 

Plantations- native Ireland who lost land.

Hello my name is Dave and I am a native Irish who lost land in the ulster planation. I own land under the earl O’Neil. He along with the earl of Tyrone began a nine year was against the English crown. They had support from the Spanish but unfortunately were defeated by the crown in the battle of kinsale in 1601. The start of my troubles was when due to pressure from other earls O’Neil left in1607 in the flight of the earls and was declared a traitor and my land was confiscated. It was then surveyed and divided into church land and crown land.

               I along with a lot of other true Irishmen resent these English. I joined the wood kerns and hid in nearby forest and attack the settler’s home. We have discorded a pattern in their defence system. If its 1000 acers, there is only 1 bawn. If its 1500 acers there’s a dawn and a stone house and in 2000 acers there’s a bawn and a defence tower. This makes it harder for us to attack.

                The king of England, king James 1 said that they wanted to create a ‘loyal protestant population’ in Ireland by getting rid of all us Catholics. That they wanted to get more money for the crown and pay soldiers and officials who fought in the 9yr war and organised the plantations.

                  Or intelligence has told us that there are three different groups who have land. Undertakers, who are normally Scottish or English Protestants. Servitors, solders and officials of the crown. And the ‘loyal Irish’

                         It is now the year 1641 and there is said to be over 40000 protests in Ireland, but we keep them separate from us Irish. We also recently had a large scale attack and massacred at least a 1000 of them. There also building new fancy towns, with diamond middle and streets leading off, surrounded with a stone wall so it’s impossible to attack. There introducing new faring methods of more crop productions and less cows.

Medieval Ages- Lord of the manor.

Hello my name is lord Hatake. I own a manor to which the king has given.  Me in return for knights to fight for him and my loyalty. The land I receive is called a fief and I a vasssel.

                    In my manor I organize the business; I keep my territory under control and carry out the wishes of my king. I control the land of my manor to witch I rent to knights who then rent it to peasants’ must also hold court to settle disputes on my land.

                  For fun I go hunting, jousting and attend tournaments. I also teach young squires how to fight while my wife taught pages the codes of chivalry.

                I and my lady also throw splendid feats for important people in the surrounding area. These feats are held in the grate hall. The lady and I sit upon the higher table. We all drink wine, ale and mead. We eat the finest meat. We eat on steel pieces of bread which is later given to my serfs. The bread is called trenches. For my latest feast we ate boars head with brown pudding and fruit tarts. Whilst musicians and jests entertained us and our guests.

                             The lady organises the slaves. We have recently organised a marriage for my eldest son to another lord’s daughter. They paid a dowry of 20 pigs to me. When I die my eldest son will succeed me as head of the castle.

Medieval town- A monk.

Hello my name is David and I’m a monk in medieval Ireland.  I live in a convent and devote my life to god. We do lots of work such as help poor and shelter travellers. We look after the sick and teach reading and writing.  I am part of the order of Augustans, and we follow the rule of st benedict .The rule of st benedict was drawn up in the 16th century; it provides a guide to pray work and study. My monastery is in mellifort abbey.

                Are main buildings in our monasteries are the church; it faces east westward and ceremonies and mass is held there. The almonry is where food is given to poor. The cloisters is a covered a walkway around the garden where we pray. The refectory is where we eat. The infirmary is where the sick is healed; we sleep in the dormitories. And I am a scribe, I work in the scriptorium to copy manuscripts and draw illustrations... we also have vegetables and fruit gardens we are very self-sufficient.

               When I wanted to become monks I first had to become a novice. When a novice I learned the rules of st beidict and helped out around the monastery. The abbot was very satisfied with my progress so I became a monk. When I became a monk I had to take three vows. Poverty, I had to give up my possessions, secondly Chasity, which means I could not marry or have children. And finally obedience, that I would obey the orders of the about. I also had my head shaved off in a tonsue and started to wear leather sandals.

                               The main jobs in the monastery are as follows. The about, or head of the monastery. The infirmaries, which took care of the sick. The sacristan, who was in charge of church and the almoner who gave food to the poor. We also give sanctuary to people who are threatened with arrest and violence.

                              My day was much organised. We pray seven times a day; this is called the divine office. We have an early morning meeting in the chapter room where the abbot gives out jobs for the day. I then go to the scriptorium and then have dinner. Or meals were accompanied by a passage from the bible and we eat in silence. We then went to sleep in the dormitories.

Contact details for HISTORY-JuniorCert

Contact:Eilis
Address:

Wexford
None
Ireland
Email:prendergasteilis@gmail.co...

Direct Message





 

Fields with * are required fields


Create your free site on myinfo.ie

Page created and rendered - Cache bypassed [0.00354s]

Refresh: None